The original Cathedral of the diocese of Kilmore was situated about four miles south of Cavan town in the present parish of Kilmore. Some time in the 6th century St Felim established a church there. Bishop Andrew MacBrady (1445-55) rebuilt the ancient church of St Felim and received permission from Pope Nicholas V to raise it to the status of a Cathedral. After the Reformation, the Cathedral of St Felim was confiscated and the diocese had no Cathedral for three hundred years. Bishop James Brown (1829-65) extended Cavan parish church and it became the Cathedral of the diocese in 1862. It was replaced by the present day Cathedral of St Patrick and Felim, which was built between the years 1938 and 1942, when Bishop Patrick Lyons was bishop of the diocese. The architect for the Cathedral was W.H. Byrne & Son and the contractor was John Sisk & Son. The Cathedral cost £209,000 and was opened and dedicated in 1942. It was consecrated in 1947.

The Cathedral is neo-classical in style with a single spire rising to 230 feet. The portico consists of a tympanum supported by four massive columns of Portland stone with Corinthian caps. The tympanum figures of Christ, St Patrick and St Felim were executed by the Dublin sculptor, Edward Smith. The twenty eight columns in the Cathedral, the pulpit on the south side and all the statues are of Pavinazetto marble and came from the firm of Dinelli Figli of Pietrasanta in Italy.

The fine work of George Collie can be seen in the Stations of the Cross and in the mural of the risen Christ on the wall of the apse. Directly above the mural are twelve small windows, showing the heads of the twelve apostles. The high altar is of green Connemara marble, while the altar rails are of white Carrara marble. The apse has two side chapels on the north and two on the south. The Blessed Sacrament is now reserved on in the south chapel closest to the high altar. The six splendid stained glass windows in the nave and one in the south transept come from the studios of Harry Clarke and were added in 1994.

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